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The large yellow and black caterpillars of this moth feed in groups and can consume large areas of foliage on a wide range of shrubs and trees.
Common name Buff tip moth Scientific name Phalera bucephalaPlants affected Oak (Quercus), hornbeam (Caprinus), lime (Tilia), birch (Betula) and many other deciduous treesMain symptoms Large (50mm long) yellow and black caterpillars Most active July to October
Buff tip moth adults have a wingspan of approximately 50mm. When at rest they resemble a broken twig of silver birch. It is the caterpillars that are often noticed in gardens as they are up to 50mm long and have black heads with hairy black and yellow-chequered bodies. They feed gregariously and can cause a significant amount of defoliation on their deciduous tree hosts.
Large (50mm long) black and yellow hairy caterpillars causing defoliation of large parts of host plants. Hosts include oak, hornbeam, lime, cherry, birch and many other deciduous trees and shrubs. Small trees or shrubs can be completely defoliated.
The caterpillars are present from July to October and when fully grown enter the soil to pupate. After overwintering as a pupae the adult moths emerge from late May to July.
Defoliation is most severe on small host plants, however as this usually occurs late in the season it should not affect the long term health or vigour of the plants. Therefore as the caterpillars, and associated moths, can be considered part of garden wildlife and they should be preserved where possible. If the caterpillars are spotted early on small trees they can be removed to a larger tree. On larger trees whilst some parts of the plant may be defoliated this will have no effect on the long term health of the host. It is unusual for a tree to be affected in two subsequent seasons by this moth. Therefore the presence of the caterpillars of this moth can usually be tolerated in gardens.
As caterpillars, and associated moths, are important as a food source for other garden wildlife they should be preserved where possible.
Angle shades mothBrown tail mothElephant hawk mothEncourage wildlife to your garden Lackey moth Moths: encouraging into your gardenOak processionary mothRHS Perfect for Pollinators Small ermine mothsSwift moth caterpillarsVapourer mothWildlife in gardensWinter moth caterpillars
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