Which bees am I likely to see?
Bees are insects in the order Hymenoptera. There over 250 species in Britain, they feed largely on nectar and pollen and are some of the most familiar of the 1000’s of pollinating insects found in Britain. British bees can generally be divided into three groups.
Bumblebees (Bombus species)
There have been about 26 species recorded in Britain, but some are now extinct or have a very restricted distribution. At peak strength in summer, a bumblebee nest will have between 50 and 400 worker bees.
- There are about eight social bumblebee species and four cuckoo species that are common in gardens
- In most cases only young fertile female bumblebees (queens) overwinter, unlike honeybees, which overwinter as colonies feeding on honey stores
- Most species have queens that burrow into the soil to overwinter. They emerge on sunny days in spring, though occasionally they can be observed foraging on warm winter days
- In spring the queens search for suitable nest sites and often choose tunnels made by mice or other rodents
- The queen then sets about raising her first brood of larvae in early spring
- Once these become adult worker bumblebees, they take over the nectar and pollen gathering duties, allowing the queen to remain in the nest and continue laying eggs
- In mid to late summer, male bumblebees and next year’s queens are produced
- By late summer, bumblebee nests are in decline with the old queen, workers and males all dying
- Sometimes bumblebee nests are found in compost heaps or other places where they can be inconvenient. Wherever possible these nest should be left to naturally die out in the late summer or autumn
- One species, the tree bumblebee, Bombus hypnorum prefers to nest in holes in trees and will often use bird boxes. This species is a recent arrival in Britain and since 2001 has become widespread in England and Wales
- Occasionally overwintering queen bumblebees are uncovered, in which case try not to cause further disturbance and cover the bee back over
- In some warmer areas, particular urban areas in southern England, the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) can have active nests all year round
More information on bumblebees is available from the Bumblebee Conservation Trust.
Solitary bees (Andrena, Lasioglossum and other species)
There are more than 260 species of solitary bee in Britain.
- Unlike the above social bees, solitary bees do not have a worker caste
- Each female constructs and provisions her nest on her own and dies before the next generation of bees emerges
- Despite being solitary, some soil-nesting species can be gregarious and there may be many nests situated close together
- Soil-nesting bees produce conical heaps of soil above the nest tunnels where excavated soil has been deposited. This can be inconvenient in lawns but is usually for only a few days or weeks each year and could be tolerated
- Other solitary bees make their nests in hollow plant stems, soft rotten wood, soft sandy cliff faces or in beetle borings in dead wood
- Leaf cutter bees make nests out of leaf or flower petal sections
- Most solitary bees are active in spring or summer. An exception is the ivy bee (Colletes hederae) a species that has become widespread in southern England and Wales since it was found in Britain in 2001. It can nest in large aggregations in sandy soils and the adults visit ivy flowers in autumn
More information on solitary bees along with information on wasps and ants can be found from the Bees Wasps and Ants Recording Society (BWARS).
Honeybee (Apis mellifera)
This is a social bee that lives in colonies of up to 60,000 and is the insect that produces honey. Most colonies are maintained by beekeepers.
- Each colony or hive has a single fertile female (queen bee) whose role is to lay eggs and maintain social cohesion within the colony
- There will be several hundred male honeybees (drones), but most of the bees in a hive are infertile female worker bees
- It is the workers that go out to gather nectar and pollen, as well as performing all the other duties of caring for the larvae, comb building and defending the hive