A few small changes are all that's needed to persuade wildlife that your plot is a nice place to call home, and once the creatures have arrived they provide huge benefits for plants as well as people, who can enjoy seeing the garden buzzing with life.
Choose the right flowers
Flowers provide pollen and nectar for bees, butterflies and other insects that perform the vital task of fertilisation – seed and fruit production would drop dramatically without them. Avoid too many highly-bred cultivars with big and blowsy or double flowers, most of which contain little or no pollen or nectar.
Choose plants that provide pollen and nectar for as long a season as possible; see our list of year-round plants for pollinators (1MB pdf). Studies such as the RHS Plants for Bugs project are helping us understand how both native and non-native plants support garden wildlife.
Grow a mix of trees and shrubs
Grow a range of trees, shrubs and climbers, or a mixed hedge to provide food and shelter. The biodiversity found in our Urban Gardens project showed that larger plants, particularly trees, support more wildlife. As well as providing food, they provide cover and nesting sites for garden animals, from insects to larger species such as birds.
Small trees and shrubs that are good for blossom and berries include rowan, crab apple, elder, blackthorn and hawthorn – and not just our native species. Fruit trees support a range of wildlife and can provide for them while also supplying you with a useful crop.
Look after mature trees
If your garden is too small for big trees, get some planted in the neighbourhood, and protect those that are already there. Large street trees provide a vital habitat for a range of wildlife, which may visit your garden too.
Wildlife rarely respects garden boundaries: try to see your own plot as part of a wider web of interlinked gardens and green space.
Add water for mammals and insects
The single easiest way to add wildlife value to a garden is to install a pond, however tiny – a large pot or even an inverted dustbin lid in an out-of-the-way spot will do.
Ideally, don't introduce fish to a wildlife pond, and make sure ponds have at least one sloping side to allow creatures an easy way out.
Leave a pile of dead wood
Decaying wood provides habitats for a range of specialist wildlife that is becoming increasingly uncommon in the countryside, such as stag and bark beetles. It also provides cover and hibernation sites.
Any unstained or unpainted wood is suitable, although big, natural logs are best in a shady spot, ideally partly buried. Log piles can look quite architectural and rustic, though many people prefer to tuck them out of sight.
Compost, compost, compost
Composting your garden waste helps all your garden plants and wildlife, as it speeds up the natural recycling of nutrients.
- Compost makes for healthy soil, which is good for everything living in it and growing on it
- It is an excellent mulch
- It's free and easy to produce
- Unlike organic matter imported from elsewhere, it comes without packaging or 'fuel miles'
- Compost heaps also shelter many small creatures (and some larger ones, like slug-loving slow worms and grass snakes), which enjoy the heat released by decomposition.
Provide food and water for birds all year
Garden birds are some of the most conspicuous of garden wildlife, and easy to attract with supplementary feeding. In winter, supplementary food can mean the difference between life and death.
Ideally, offer a mix of food including peanuts, sunflower hearts, seeds, kitchen scraps and fat balls, or proprietary seed mixtures. Don't forget that a supply of clean, unfrozen water is just as vital for feathered visitors – and ensure feeding tables are not accessible to cats.
Don’t be too tidy
This doesn't mean your garden has to look a mess, but piles of leaves and twiggy debris provide both food and habitat for many species. If you leave perennials uncut over winter, their hollow stems can shelter hibernating insects.
Piles of stones also make good habitat, particularly for hibernating reptiles and amphibians. Tuck them away in hidden corners, at the back of borders or even behind the shed.
Allow a patch of grass to grow longer
If you don't have room for, or don't want, a full-scale wildflower meadow, simply allowing patches of lawn to grow longer will provide shelter for small mammals and food for some butterfly caterpillars – not all of these eat cabbages or nettles, contrary to popular belief.
Garden sustainably to help protect wildlife
Sustainability simply means minimising your use of finite resources (such as oil and peat) in favour of those that are continuously produced by natural processes (power from wind turbines or using your own compost).
Synthetic pesticides are toxic to more than the target organisms: so a non-organic greenfly spray is likely to harm bees and butterflies too. They are also extremely energy intensive to produce, so employ them as a last resort wherever possible.
Avoid peat-based composts, choose sustainably-sourced wood for patio furniture, recycle all you can, and save water wherever possible – these are all more sustainable forms of gardening. It will help ensure that your garden treads lightly on the world.
Create a mini wildflower meadow
Meadows are simply mixtures of grasses and flowers. They are great for insects, low maintenance, and they make a good, more natural alternative to a labour-intensive lawn. Annual meadows have a mix of annual wildflowers such as poppies, cornflowers and annual grasses. They will succeed on fairly rich soils, but a suitable seed mix usually needs to be re-sown each year.
Perennial meadows have more permanent plants such as buttercups, ragged robin and ox-eye daisies (Leucanthemum). They need relatively poor soil as this allows the wildflowers to compete with the grasses.
Including yellow rattle (a native annual that is a partial parasite on grasses) also helps reduce the grasses' vigour, allowing flowers to shine through. Mowing paths through meadows invites exploration.
Find out more about the RHS Plants for Bugs research project
See our 'Perfect for Pollinators' plant lists
Why do insects matter anyway?