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Quercus ilex

holm oak

Q. ilex is a large evergreen tree with black, finely cracked bark, developing a massive, rounded crown. Glossy dark green, ovate leaves, whitish beneath contrast with whitish young foliage and yellow catkins

Other common names
evergreen oak
holly oak
see moreholly-leaved oak
ilex

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Size
Ultimate height
Higher than 12 metres
Time to ultimate height
20–50 years
Ultimate spread
Wider than 8 metres
Growing conditions
Chalk
Clay
Loam
Sand
Moisture
Moist but well–drained, Well–drained
pH
Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Colour & scent
StemFlowerFoliageFruit
Spring Yellow Green
Summer Green
Autumn Green Brown
Winter Green
Position
  • Full sun
  • Partial shade
Aspect

South–facing or North–facing or East–facing or West–facing

Exposure
Exposed or Sheltered
Drought resistance
Yes
Hardiness
H4
Botanical details
Family
Fagaceae
Native to the UK
No
Foliage
Evergreen
Habit
Bushy
Genus

Quercus can be deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs, with entire, lobed or toothed leaves; flowers inconspicuous, followed by characteristic acorns; sometimes good autumn colour

Name status

Correct

Plant range
Mediterranean

How to grow

Cultivation

An easy to grow evergreen tree that responds well to formative pruning and clipping. Can be used as hedging in coastal areas and is suitable for most sites except the coldest inland areas. Leaf fall can occur in summer

Propagation

Propagate by seed sown in a coldframe or seedbed as soon as ripe or by grafting in mid-autumn or late winter

Suggested planting locations and garden types
  • Coastal
  • Mediterranean climate plants
  • Hedging and screens
Pruning

Pruning group 1

Pests

Susceptible to aphids and leaf-mining moths

Diseases

Generally disease free

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