• AGM plants

    AGM plants have been through a rigorous trial and assessment programme. They are:

    • Excellent for ordinary use in appropriate conditions
    • Available to buy
    • Of good constitution
    • Essentially stable in form & colour
    • Reasonably resistant to pests & diseases

Linaria vulgaris

common toadflax

  • Other common names common toadflax
    bread and butter

    butter and eggs
    butter haycocks
    continental weed
    dragon bushes
    eggs and bacon
    eggs and butter
    false flax
    imprudent lawyer
    impudent lawyer
    Jacob's ladder
    lion's mouth
    North American ramsted
    wild flax
    wild snapdragon
    yellow rod
    yellow toadflax

    see more
  • Synonyms Antirrhinum linaria

  • Family Plantaginaceae

  • Genus Linaria can be annuals, biennials or herbaceous perennials, with simple leaves and terminal racemes of 2-lipped flowers with conspicuous spurs

  • Details L. vulgaris is an erect perennial, spreading by runners, with stiff stems bearing narrow, pale green leaves that are arranged in a spiral. The pale yellow flowers, resembling small snapdragons in dense spikes, appear from late spring to mid-autumn

  • Plant range Europe, SW Asia


  • Foliage Deciduous

  • Habit Columnar/Upright

  • Hardiness

    Hardiness ratings

    All ratings refer to the UK growing conditions unless otherwise stated. Minimum temperature ranges (in degrees C) are shown in brackets

    • H1a - Under glass all year (>15C)
    • H1b - Can be grown outside in the summer (10 - 15)
    • H1c - Can be grown outside in the summer (5 - 10)
    • H2 - Tolerant of low temperatures, but not surviving being frozen (1 to 5)
    • H3 - Hardy in coastal and relatively mild parts of the UK (-5 to 1)
    • H4 - Hardy through most of the UK (-10 to -5)
    • H5 - Hardy in most places throughout the UK even in severe winters (-15 to -10)
    • H6 - Hardy in all of UK and northern Europe (-20 to -15)
    • H7 - Hardy in the severest European continental climates (< -20)




  • Full Sun

  • Aspect South-facing or West-facing

  • Exposure Exposed or Sheltered


  • Loam


  • Sand


  • MoistureWell-drained

  • SoilLoam, Sand

  • pHAcid, Alkaline, Neutral


  • Ultimate height 0.1-0.5 metres

  • Ultimate spread 0.1-0.5 metres

  • Time to ultimate height 2-5 years

How to grow

Cultivation Grow in moderately fertile, light, well-drained soil; sandy soil is ideal. Full sun essential

Propagation Propagate by seed in pots in a cold frame in early spring. Propagate by division or softwood cuttings in spring

Suggested planting locations and garden types Flower borders and beds Low Maintenance Underplanting of Roses and Shrubs Cottage & Informal Garden Wildlife Gardens Wildflower meadow

How to care

Pruning After flowering, plants can be cut back to prevent self-seeding

Pests May be attacked by aphids

Diseases May be affected by powdery mildews

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