• AGM plants

    AGM plants have been through a rigorous trial and assessment programme. They are:

    • Excellent for ordinary use in appropriate conditions
    • Available to buy
    • Of good constitution
    • Essentially stable in form & colour
    • Reasonably resistant to pests & diseases

Carpinus betulus

common hornbeam

AGM plants

AGM plants have been through a rigorous trial and assessment programme. They are:

  • Excellent for ordinary use in appropriate conditions
  • Available to buy
  • Of good constitution
  • Essentially stable in form & colour
  • Reasonably resistant to pests & diseases
  • Other common names common hornbeam
    European hornbeam

    horn beech
    horse beech
    hurst beech
    white beech
    yoke elm
    charmille

    see more
  • Synonyms Carpinus caucasia
    Carpinus caucasica

    Carpinus vulgaris

    see more
  • Family Betulaceae

  • Genus Carpinus are deciduous shrubs and trees with attractive foliage and hop-like fruit clusters in late summer and autumn

  • Details C. betulus is a large deciduous tree developing a fluted grey trunk. Leaves 5-8cm long, ovate, conspicuously ribbed, turning yellow in autumn. Catkins open in spring, followed by hop-like fruiting catkins to 8cm. Good for woodland settings

  • Plant range Europe, Turkey

Characteristics

  • Foliage Deciduous

  • Habit Bushy

  • Hardiness

    Hardiness ratings

    All ratings refer to the UK growing conditions unless otherwise stated. Minimum temperature ranges (in degrees C) are shown in brackets

    • H1a - Under glass all year (>15C)
    • H1b - Can be grown outside in the summer (10 - 15)
    • H1c - Can be grown outside in the summer (5 - 10)
    • H2 - Tolerant of low temperatures, but not surviving being frozen (1 to 5)
    • H3 - Hardy in coastal and relatively mild parts of the UK (-5 to 1)
    • H4 - Hardy through most of the UK (-10 to -5)
    • H5 - Hardy in most places throughout the UK even in severe winters (-15 to -10)
    • H6 - Hardy in all of UK and northern Europe (-20 to -15)
    • H7 - Hardy in the severest European continental climates (< -20)

    H7

Colour

Sunlight

  • Full Sun

  • Partial Shade

  • Aspect East-facing or South-facing or North-facing or West-facing

  • Exposure Exposed or Sheltered

Soil

  • Chalk

    Chalk

  • Clay

    Clay

  • Loam

    Loam

  • Sand

    Sand

  • MoistureMoist but well-drained, Well-drained

  • SoilChalk, Clay, Loam, Sand

  • pHAcid, Alkaline, Neutral

Size

  • Ultimate height Higher than 12 metres

  • Ultimate spread wider than 8 metres

  • Time to ultimate height more than 50 years

How to grow

Cultivation Grow in fertile, well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade

Propagation Propagate by seed, softwood cuttings or by grafting

Suggested planting locations and garden types Flower borders and beds Architectural

How to care

Pruning Pruning group 1

Pests May be susceptible to caterpillars and aphids

Diseases May be susceptible to powdery mildews and coral spot

Did you find the information you were looking for?

RHS members can get exclusive individual advice from the RHS Gardening Advice team.

Join the RHS now

Get involved

The Royal Horticultural Society is the UK’s leading gardening charity. We aim to enrich everyone’s life through plants, and make the UK a greener and more beautiful place.