Scientific names Bradysia and other species
Plants affected Seedlings, soft cuttings in greenhouses and pot plants
Main cause Maggots feeding on decaying organic matter; adult flies can be a nuisance in houses
Timing All year round on house plants and in greenhouses
What are fungus gnats?
Fungus gnats are small flies in the family Sciaridae, the family is represented by over 250 species in Britain. Many species feed on rotting organic matter and therefore are a part of a healthy balanced ecosystem and are entirely harmless. A few species in the genus Sciara can breed in large numbers in damp composts and may be considered a nuisance, the compost-dwelling larvae can sometimes damage seedlings and cuttings. These insects also occur out of doors where they cause no damage. Cultivated and wild mushrooms can also be affected. There are also many (perhaps 1000's of ) species of small fly that occur in Britain most of which are a vital part of natural ecosystems and do not damage garden plants.
Adult fungus gnats are greyish brown flies that are mostly 3-4mm long, some species have yellowish adbomens. They can often be seen running over the surface of seed trays and pots, or flying slowly around plants. The larvae are slender whitish maggots, up to 6mm long, with black heads. Their bodies are semi-transparent and it is often possible to see the dark coloured gut contents. They live in soil or potting compost. This insect thrives in damp composts containing high levels of organic matter. Potting media formulated for houseplants is the best choice for indoor plants and may help avoid large numbers of fungus gnats.
Adult fungus gnats do not damage plants but they can cause annoyance when they are flying around indoors. The larvae feed mainly on dead roots and other decaying plant material and associated fungal growth. Some species of fungus gnats may also feed on soft plant growth, such as seedling roots and the base of soft cuttings. Established plants are unlikely to be damaged by fungus gnat larvae.
Fungus gnats are really only of concern if they are causing damage to seedlings or cuttings; established plants are not harmed.
Check indoor plants frequently, ensuring they are not over watered enabling fungus gnats to breed. Regular inspection will mean that action can be taken before a large population has developed. When choosing control options you can minimise harm to non-target animals by starting with the methods in the non-pesticide control section. If this is not sufficient to reduce the damage to acceptable levels then you may choose to use pesticides. Within this group the shorter persistence pesticides (that are usually certified for organic growing) are likely to be less damaging to non-target wildlife than those with longer persistence and/or systemic action.
- In the open garden fungus gnats are not a problem and part of a well balanced biodiverse garden ecosystem
- Fungus gnats are often more numerous in composts that are constantly wet, allowing compost to dry can reduce infestations, provided this does not affect the health of plants. Potting media formulated for houseplants is the best choice for indoor plants
- If the adult flies are a nuisance, their numbers can be reduced by placing yellow sticky traps near the plants. These are widely available from garden centres
- Biological control can be used. Pathogenic nematodes (Steinernema feltiae), predatory mites (Hypoaspis miles and 'Mighty Mite', Macrocheles robustus) and a predatory rove beetle (Atheta coriaria) are sometimes available by mail order from various biocontrol supply companies. Formulations of nematodes may also be available in some plant centres. These biocontrols are added to the potting compost where they will help control the eggs, larvae and pupal stages of the flies.
Pesticide controlThe RHS believes that avoiding pests, diseases and weeds by good practice in cultivation methods, cultivar selection, garden hygiene and encouraging or introducing natural enemies, should be the first line of control. If chemical controls are used, they should be used only in a minimal and highly targeted manner.
Control of fungus gnats should be aimed at reducing larval numbers by non-pesticide methods, these will usually reduce numbers of flies to acceptable levels. Contact insecticides may control the adult flies but this may give only temporary respite if more adults emerge from pupae in the compost
Fungus gnats can breed all year round in greenhouses and houses. The females deposit eggs in the surface layer of the potting compost and these hatch within a few days under warm conditions. The larvae feed on fungal growth and decaying plant material but some species can also damage the roots of seedlings or tunnel into the base of soft cuttings. When fully fed, the larvae pupate in the soil. During the summer the life cycle can be completed in about a month.
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