Scientific name: Hauptidia maroccana
Plants affected: Many glasshouse vegetables and ornamental plants including tomato, peppers, aubergine, cucumber, fuchsia, pelargonium and Streptocarpus. Outdoor plants, such as polyanthus, foxglove and Nicotiana are also hosts
Main symptoms: Coarse pale spotting on upper leaf surface. Leafhoppers may be seen on the underside of leaves
Most active: April to September but all year round in glasshouses
What is glasshouse leafhopper?
The leafhoppers are a family (Cicadellidae) of sap sucking true bugs, there are more than 180 species found in Britain.They can jump or fly short distances and most do not feed on or cause noticeable damage to garden plants. Find out more about British species from British bugs.
Glasshouse leafhopper is a 3mm long pale green species.
- A coarse pale mottling appears on the upper leaf surface of a wide range of plants in greenhouses, on houseplants and in gardens (similar mottling on sage, rosemary and other herbs is likely to be due to the sage or Ligurian leafhoppers)
- The spots can join together, giving the leaves a chlorotic appearance that could be mistaken for a mineral deficiency
- Damaged leaves will remain discoloured
- Adult glasshouse leafhoppers are 3mm (about 1/8in) long and pale yellow with grey markings. They are broadest at the head end and taper to a point behind
- Adults jump off leaves and fly short distances when disturbed
- The creamy white, wingless nymphs are less active and can be easier to spot
- White cast skins shed by the immature nymphs can often be found attached to the underside of damaged leaves (aphid skins are usualy found on the top surface of leaves)
Check susceptible plants frequently from spring onwards so action can be taken before a damaging population has developed. When choosing control options you can minimise harm to non-target animals by starting with the methods in the non-pesticide control section. If this is not sufficient to reduce the damage to acceptable levels then you may choose to use pesticides. Within this group the shorter persistence pesticides (that are usually certified for organic growing) are likely to be less damaging to non-target wildlife than those with longer persistence and/or systemic action.
- Often leafhoppers do not affect the growth or vigour of plants and so can be tolerated, they are part of the biodiversity a healthy garden can support
- Encourage predators and other natural enemies of leafhoppers, in the garden, such as birds, ladybirds, wasps and ground beetles.
Pesticide controlThe RHS believes that avoiding pests, diseases and weeds by good practice in cultivation methods, cultivar selection, garden hygiene and encouraging or introducing natural enemies, should be the first line of control. If chemical controls are used, they should be used only in a minimal and highly targeted manner.
- Organic sprays, such as natural pyrethrum (e.g. Bug Clear Gun for Fruit & Veg, Neudorff Bug Free Bug and Larvae Killer), fatty acids (e.g. Doff Greenfly & Blackfly Killer) or plant oils (e.g. Vitax Plant Guard Pest & Disease Control, Bug Clear for Fruit and Veg) can give good control of leafhoppers. These pesticides have a very short persistence and so may require reapplication to keep leafhopper numbers in check. Plant oil and fatty acid products are less likely to affect larger insects such as ladybird adults
- Plant invigorators combine nutrients to stimulate plant growth with surfactants or fatty acids that have a physical mode of action against aphids (e.g. Ecofective Bug Control, RHS Bug and Mildew Control, SB Plant Invigorator and Westland Resolva Natural Power Bug & Mildew). These products contain some synthetic ingredients and so are not considered organic
- More persistent contact-action insecticides include the synthetic pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin (e.g. Westland Resolva Bug Killer), deltamethrin (e.g. Provanto Ultimate Fruit & Vegetable Bug Killer, Provanto Sprayday Greenfly Killer) and cypermethrin (e.g. Py Bug Killer)
- A systemic containing the active ingredient Flupyradifurone (Provanto Smart Bug Killer) is available for use on ornamentals and selected edibles
- The systemic neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid (e.g. Bug Clear Ultra) is also available
Plants in flower should not be sprayed due to the danger to bees and other pollinating insects.
Inclusion of a pesticide product does not indicate a recommendation or endorsement by RHS Gardening Advice. It is a list of products currently available to the home gardener.
Pesticides for gardeners (Adobe Acrobat pdf document outlining pesticides available to gardeners)
- Leaf mottling can be caused by the feeding activities of the adults and nymphs, which live mainly on the lower leaf surface
- This leafhopper has several generations during the growing season and can remain active throughout the year on indoor plants
- Eggs are laid in the leaf veins and hatch into wingless creamy white nymphs
- The nymphs shed their outer skin five times as they grow and finally become adults
- In midsummer, the life cycle can be completed in six weeks but takes several months in the winter
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