Tree ferns thrive in a sheltered, humid and shaded position, with plenty of room so that the top of the plant can spread without crowding. Fronds on mature specimens may reach 2m (6ft) or more in length. They should be planted in humus-rich, neutral to slightly acid soil.
Extremely slow-growing, these desirable plants only increase by about 2.5cm (1in) a year. Therefore, if you want a plant for immediate effect, you should choose a fern with a length of trunk that suits your planting scheme.
If you buy containerised ferns in leaf, plant at the same level as they were in the container.
Frondless lengths of trunk are also available. Soak the base, and plant just enough of the trunk to ensure that the plant remains stable. After planting frondless tree ferns, water every day until the foliage starts to emerge.
To encourage rooting, don’t feed the plant during its first year.
Watering and feeding
The trunk and crown of tree ferns will not tolerate drying out, so water regularly to ensure the trunk remains damp, and spray the trunk with water during hot weather (and during dry conditions in winter).
After the first year of planting, apply a liquid feed (diluted as directed by the manufacturer) to the fronds and trunk once a month, from mid-spring to mid-summer, when the plant is in growth. Alternatively, spread controlled-release fertiliser around the base of the plant in spring at the rate recommended by the manufacturer.
Over the past few severe winters, gardens have suffered losses of trees ferns, which are not fully hardy. Hardiness tends to increase with the height of the growing point above the ground; young plants with no trunk are not really suitable to overwinter outdoors except in very sheltered sites. To protect plants growing outdoors to avoid damage to fronds, put a handful of straw in the crown and fold the fronds in on themselves.
Container-grown plants in milder areas should be placed in a sheltered position and the container bubble-wrapped. Protect from late October, but remove wrapping in spring, before new fronds come into growth. More substantial wrapping is needed if you have a more exposed garden. In cold gardens, tree ferns are best lifted and brought into a conservatory or greenhouse.