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Daffodils have long been considered one of the heralds of spring. Planted in autumn, they spend several months developing roots before the flowers burst forth in spring. They can be planted in borders and containers.
Narcissus 'Jet Fire. Credit: RHS Herbarium.
Growing daffodils is similar to growing other garden bulbs. See our advice on growing and planting bulbs, and how to naturalise them in areas of grass.
Daffodils are divided into 13 divisions, based mainly on flower form, and these divisions are often referred to in bulb catalogues. Some divisions are known particularly for their fragrance, or for their ability to naturalise in grass. A brief summary is given in the photo gallery below.
Daffodils can be propagated by seed, division and chipping.
N. ‘February Gold’ AGM: Division 6, flowers in early spring, blooms 7.5cm (3in) across, golden yellow
N. ‘Tête-á-Tête’ AGM: Division 12, dwarf daffodil wiht golden yellow, slightly swept-back petals; good in containers
N. ‘Paper White’: Division 8 strongly scented daffodil usually forced for indoor display, with clusters of white blooms 1.5cm (0.5in) across; not fully hardy
N. ‘Rip van Winkle’: Division 4 daffodil flowering in early spring with greenish-yellow spidery blooms, 5cm (2in) across, with irregular, pointed petals
N. ‘Stratosphere’: Division 7 daffodil with up to three scented blooms per stem, each 6.5cm (2.5in) across, golden yellow with small cups
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Daffodils can be troubled by slugs, snails, virus diseases and Narcissus bulb rot. Other problems include various rots and fungal diseases.
Sometimes daffodils can fail to flower or produce unusually small, pale flowers. This is known as daffodil blindness, and has a number of causes.
Bulbs for Christmas flowering
Crown imperial (Fritillaria imperialis)
RHS Daffodil & Tulip Committee
RHS publication: The International Daffodil Register and Classified List
RHS publication: Daffodil, Snowdrop and Tulip Yearbook
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