Some of the most damaging pests can thankfully be controlled using biological control. Here are the major pests and their controls;
1. Glasshouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum):
CONTROL: A small parasitic chalcid wasp (Encarsia formosa), thought to have originated from South America, but discovered in the UK in 1926. The adult parasitoids are 0.6mm long; the female has a dark coloured head and thorax with a pale yellow abdomen; the males are entirely dark. Females lay 50-100 eggs singly in whitefly scales. Parasitised scales turn black distinguishing them from whitish-green healthy scales. Adult wasps emerge through circular holes cut in the dorsal surface of the dead scales. Adult parasites feed on the sugary excretion known as honeydew produced by whiteflies.
Encarsia is supplied in the form of black scales on pieces of leaf or pasted onto cards. These cards or leaf portions should be fixed securely in a shaded position on infested plants. Adult parasites emerge within a few days and the first blackened scales should appear on the plants after about three weeks. This parasite is not effective against cabbage whitefly or other whitefly species.
2. Glasshouse red (two-spotted) spider mite (Tetranychus urticae)
CONTROL: This common problem breeds rapidly and is difficult to control effectively with pesticides, especially if resistant strains of the mite are present. There are several biological controls available for this mite
Predatory mite (Phytoseiulus persimilis), originally from Chile, is now widely used in preference to pesticides.
- The predator is about the same size as glasshouse red spider mite (0.5 mm), but they can be distinguished if examined with a hand lens
- The predators have orange-red pear-shaped bodies, are more active than the pest, and can often be seen tapping the leaf surface with their front legs in search of prey
- Glasshouse red spider mites are more lethargic than the predator and their body shape is rectangular. Despite its common name, they are usually yellowish-green with two dark patches. They may be entirely dark, or in the autumn they may become reddish-orange.
- The predators feed on all life stages of glasshouse red spider mite.
- The predators are dispatched as nymphs and adults which should be released in sheltered positions on infested plants.
- The predator does not control fruit tree red spider mite on apple and plum, but can be successful against glasshouse red spider mite on outdoor plants in the summer.
Other mites, Amblyseius spp., are also sold for control of red spider mite and some other glasshouse pests. These can be used earlier in the season when temperatures are as low as 10ºC.
A midge, Feliella acarisuga, is also available this can be used early and late in the season and can find small hidden populations of its prey.
A 3-4mm long dark brown rove beetle Atheta coriaria is a predatory insect as an adult and larvae it will feed on a wide range of invertebrate problems including fungus gnats, thrips and is sometimes sold for control of red spider mite
3. Glasshouse mealybugs (Pseudococcus and Planococcus spp.)
CONTROL: The waxy fibres that mealybugs secrete over themselves and their habit of infesting relatively inaccessible places on plants, reduces the effectiveness of insecticides. A ladybird predator (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri) native to Australia can overcome these problems. Both the adult ladybirds and larvae feed on mealybugs and their eggs. The adults are 3.5mm long and are of the typical ladybird shape with grey-black wing cases and a reddish-brown head and thorax. The ladybirds’ larvae resemble mealybugs, but when fully grown, the ladybird larvae are more than twice as large as most mealybugs and have a more extensive wax coating.
This ladybird can lay up to 500 eggs if there is a plentiful supply of food. The mealybug ladybird needs warm conditions and does best when daytime temperatures are around 27ºC (80ºF). The predator should be released onto infested plants in the evening to reduce the risk of adult ladybirds flying up and escaping through ventilators. The beetles will generally stay on the plants once they have settled, although they will wander about if there is insufficient food.
Parasitic wasps, Leptomastix and Leptomastidea sp. and Anagrus sp. are also available often in combination with Cryptolaemus for mealybug control. These can help reduce mealybug populations when the problem is at low levels.
4. Scale insects
CONTROL: Some glasshouse species, such as soft scale (Coccus hesperidum) and hemispherical scale (Saisettia coffeae), can be kept in check by releasing parasitic wasps Metaphycus helvolus, Encyrtus spp. and Encarsia citrina. These lay eggs in scale nymphs, which become darkened and are killed. At 27ºC (80ºF) the life cycle from egg to adult wasp takes about 12 days but is slower at lower temperatures. These parasitoids should be introduced in May to July for the best results. The nematode Steinernema feltiae is also sometimes recommended for control of these scale insects.
A small black ladybird, Chilocorus nigritus is sometimes available for Diaspid scales in glasshouses and can give good control during the growing season.
CONTROL: There are a wide range of biological controls available for aphids (greenfly and blackfly). Many are native species that commonly occur in gardens. These parasites and predators often naturally reduce aphid problems by mid-summer in the garden but may need introducing into the glasshouse.
A small midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza, whose larvae prey on aphids can give effective control in glasshouses from April to September. These tiny flies (< 3 mm) lay red eggs at night on foliage, these may be laid singly or in clusters of up to 40. The females lay a total of about 100 eggs over a period of two weeks. The eggs hatch after three days and the small orange-white larvae take seven to fourteen days to complete their feeding before pupating in silk cocoons in the soil. Adults emerge about three weeks later. Pot plants should be stood on trays of damp sand, otherwise fully fed Aphidoletes larvae will drop down and fail to find anywhere to pupate.
The larvae feed by attaching themselves to an aphid's leg joint and sucking out the body contents. The larvae often feed underneath the aphids' bodies and can be difficult to see in dense aphid colonies. Sixty to eighty aphids can be killed by a larva during its development. Control may be less satisfactory on plants with hairy leaves. Aphidoletes are supplied as larvae, which should be gently transferred to aphid-infested plants with the aid of a soft paint brush, or as pupae which should be put in a cool damp place at the base of plants.
A species of green lacewing larva, Chrysoperla carnea. The adult has a slender pale green body, about 10mm long, with long thread-like antennae and transparent wings with many veins. The adults feed on pollen, nectar and honeydew but the larvae are voracious predators of aphids, other small insects and mites. The females lay white eggs that are raised off the leaf surface on silk threads 5-7mm long. This species of lacewing overwinters in sheltered places as adult insects.
Larvae and adults of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata, can be purchased and should be placed on aphid infested plants from spring onwards. Adult ladybirds tend to disperse but the larvae stay where they have been put if aphids are present. Each ladybird will consume many hundreds of aphids during its lifetime.
Parasitic wasps, Aphidius, Praon or Aphelinus species are also available. These lay eggs inside aphids, the larvae then eat the internal contents of the aphid, leaving a hollow swollen straw-brown or black skin known as an aphid mummy. Aphidius and Aphelnius species pupate within the hollowed out mummy, the adult wasp emerging from a circular hole in the dorsal surface. The fully grown larvae of Praon species emerge from under the aphid spinning a silken cocoon that fastens the aphid mummy to the leaf. The parasites are supplied as adult wasps or parasitised aphids. These should be released or placed on plants in the evening.
A 3-4mm long dark brown rove beetle Atheta coriaria is a predatory insect as an adult and larvae it will feed on a wide range of invertebrate problems including aphids, fungus gnats, thrips and red spider mite.
The predatory green larvae (maggots) of a hoverfly Sphaerophoria ruppelli are also available for control of aphids
Aphid predators, such as the larvae of ladybirds, hoverflies and lacewings, can also be collected from garden plants and released into a glasshouse.
6. Vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus)
CONTROL: The larvae of vine weevil feed on the roots of many plants, especially those being grown in pots or other containers. The grubs can be controlled by watering into the potting compost a suspension of the pathogenic nematode, Steinernema kraussei. For best results nematodes need to be used in a well-drained potting compost or light soil, which must be moist. Treatment in August to early September should control vine weevil grubs before they are large enough to cause serious damage.
Steinernema kraussei will remain active at soil temperatures down to 5ºC (41ºF), so control can also be achieved later in the autumn to spring period, although late treatment may fail to prevent some damage occurring. A different species of nematode, Heterorhabditis megidis, is available from some suppliers, this requires soil temperatures of 12-20ºC (54-68ºF). The nematodes Heterohabditis bacteriophora and H. downsei are also available for vine weevil grub control.
A trap containing nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae), is also available for controlling adult vine weevil. The traps should be placed on the ground below plants damaged by the weevils during the summer. The adults enter the trap during the day and are infected by the nematodes.
CONTROL: Several species of slugs cause damage in gardens, especially to seedlings, herbaceous plants and potato tubers. They can be controlled by a pathogenic nematode, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. It can be used anytime when the soil is moist and above 5ºC (41ºF), but is best applied on several occasions between spring and autumn. Light sandy soils allow nematodes to move more freely through the soil; poor results may be achieved on heavy, poorly drained soils. Snails can be affected by the nematode but are less likely to come into contact with it as snails spend most of their lives on or above the soil surface.
8. Other biological controls – predators and parasites
Other controls are sometimes available for use in gardens and/or glasshouses:
- Sciarid fly/fungus gnat larvae: Fungus gnat mite (Hypoaspis miles), Mighty mite (Macrocheles robustulus), rove beetle (Atheta coriaria), predatory mite Stratiolaelaps scimitus
- Thrips: A predatory bug (Orius laevigatus), Predatory mite (Hypoaspis species), Mighty mite (Macrocheles robustulus)
- Thrips, including western flower thrips, glasshouse red spider mite, fruit tree red spider mite, tarsonemid mite and citrus red spider mite: predetory mites (Amblyseius and Hypoaspis species)
- Caterpillars: Trichogramma egg parasite
- Cabbage white butterfly eggs: Parasite Trichogramma brassicae
9. Other biological controls – nematodes
Other controls are available for use in gardens and/or glasshouses:
- Chafer grubs in lawns: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora are available for control best applied in autumn
- A wide range of vegetable and fruit pests including cabbage root fly, onion fly, fungus gnats, cutworms, leatherjackets, caterpillars, gooseberry sawfly, thrips and codling moth: a mixture of nematode species, sold as Fruit and Vegetable Protection', is available
- Carrot fly can be controlled in spring with Steinernema feltiae and summer Steinernema carpocapsae
- Sciarid flies/fungus gnats, leatherjackets and ants in lawns: use different formulations of Steinernema feltiae
- A formation of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is available for use against Wireworm