Mulch cherries with well-rotted organic matter, in late February. Feed with general fertiliser like Growmore at 100g per sq m (4oz per sq yd) from February to March. If fruiting is poor, apply sulphate of potash at 15g per sq m (½oz per sq yd).
Protect cherry flowers from frost damage: cover with horticultural fleece if frost is predicted. Keep trees well watered during the early stages of fruit development, they also benefit from a top-dressing of a general fertiliser in mid-spring.
Sweet cherries are usually grown as small trees (‘open-centred bush’ or ‘pyramid’), or fans against a wall or fence.
Sweet cherries fruit on one-year-old and older wood; pruning creates a balance between older fruiting wood and younger replacement branches.
Formative pruning takes place in spring as the buds begin to open, established trees are pruned from late July to the end August.
For pruning of mature fan trees and for pruning of bush sweet and acid cherry trees, read more in our advice profile.
Formative pruning of acid cherries
Initial fan training is also as for other fruit trees: read more on fan-training trees in our advice profile. Read more on the pruning of open-centred bush trees.
Acid cherries bear almost all of their fruit on the growth formed the previous season. The aim is to achieve a balance between one-year-old fruiting wood and new replacement branches – this is called replacement pruning.
Pruning of established bush trees of acid cherries
In August, remove about one in four of the older fruited shoots, to a younger side shoot to replace the removed growth.
Shorten over-vigorous upright growth that is crowding the centre, to a suitably placed side shoot.
Pruning of established fans of acid cherries
In late July, thin new shoots formed along the main branches to 5-10cm (2-4in) apart and tie the retained shoots to their supports.
Prune back branches projecting from the wall to two leaves, to keep the tree flat.
In late August tie in the current season’s growth that will flower and fruit next year.
Cut back fruited shoots to a suitable side branch that can replace the removed growth.
Cherries prefer deep, fertile and well-drained soil with pH 6.5-6.7. They dislike shallow, sandy or badly drained soils.
Acid cherries tolerate some shade and are suitable as fan-trained trees against north-facing walls or fences, or as open centred bush trees.
Cherries grow particularly well in southern and central England.
Sweet cherries are grafted onto rootstocks, usually semi-vigorous ‘Colt,’ restricting growth to about 6-8m (20-26ft) making large trees and are best grown as fans – ideally against sunny walls in gardens.
Alternatively use or semi-dwarfing ‘Gisela 5’ and ‘Tabel’, reaching 3-4m (10-13ft) – the latter are ideal as dwarf bush trees or for containers.
Acid cherries are less vigorous, growing to a height and spread of 3-3.5m (10-12ft) on ‘Colt’ rootstocks.
Some sweet cherries need pollination partners, others are self fertile, producing fruit on a single tree. Acid cherries are self-fertile. Cherries flower early in the year, if frost is forecast, protect the blossom with horticultural fleece, removing it during the day to allow access to pollinating insects.
Plant cherries from November to March. Read more on planting trees in our advice profile.
Shedding of flower buds and immature fruit: This can be caused by drought, waterlogging or low temperatures, and bullfinches may damage fruit buds.
Remedy: Water, reduce watering, protect plants with horticultural fleece or netting depending on the problem.
More info on Shedding of flower buds and immature fruit
Spotted wing drosophila (SWD): This small fruit fly was first reported in the UK in 2012 and is likely to become an increasing problem on fruit, especially cherries. Maggots infest the cherries and cause them to rot.
Remedy: Use traps and fine mesh to help protect developing fruit.
More info on Spotted wing drosophila (SWD)
Cherry blackfly: Small insects suck sap at the shoot tips distorting shoots and leaves. This does not affect fruiting and acts as a form of pruning.
Remedy: Attract natural predators, like blue tits, before the leaves curl.
More info on Cherry blackfly
Silver leaf: Leaves develop a silvery sheen, cut branches reveal red staining.
Remedy: Prune from the end of June until the end of August or in early spring. Keep pruning cuts to a minimum, pruning regularly so cut surfaces are small.
More info on Silver leaf
Pick fruits preferably during dry weather, doing so by the stalks, not the body of the fruit, which bruises easily.
Eat sweet cherries fresh or store them in the fridge in a sealed, plastic bag for up to a week. Acid cherries are too tart to be eaten raw, but they are excellent sweetened and cooked to make delicious pies, puddings, liquors and preserves.
Acid cherry ‘Nabella:Self fertile, for picking in late summer.
Acid cherry ‘Morello’ AGM:Self fertile, dark red, excellent for preserves and tarts. Attractive in blossom, heavy cropping; late season for harvesting in July and early August.
‘Sunburst’:Self fertile. Black fruits for picking in mid-summer.
‘Lapins’:Self fertile, black, glossy fruits for picking in late summer.
Black, large, rich, high quality. Heavy, regular crops; self-fertile. Prone to splitting in wet weather. Late season - harvest in July.