Garden thugs: potential nuisance plants
Most gardeners are aware of the problems caused by weeds, but there are garden plants - readily available to buy - that have the potential to become a nuisance. Gardeners may buy these 'thug' plants unaware that, once established and given the right growing conditions, they can run amok.
- Leyland cypress
- Japanese anemones
What are garden 'thug' plants?
Garden thugs are those plants that can quickly get out of hand in the garden, even though they are not regarded as weeds and are commonly sold in garden centres.
Think carefully about introducing these plants to your garden, and be prepared to carry out judicious pruning and digging or
Examples of such plants include:
Trees and shrubs
- Cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus)
- False acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia)
- Kerria japonica
- Leyland cypress (× Cuprocyparis leylandii)
- Poplars (Populus spp.)
- Sumach (Rhus typhina)
- Symphoricarpos × doorenbosii
Bamboos, sedges, reeds and grasses
- Sasa palmata (see our bamboo profile for a fuller list of invasive bamboos)
- Phalaris arundinacea
- Phragmites australis
- Weeping sedge (Carex pendula)
- Bear's breeches (Acanthus)
- Chinese lantern (Physalis alkekengi)
- Golden rod (Solidago canadensis)
- Houttuynia cordata ‘Chameleon’
- Japanese anemone (Anemone × hybrida cultivars)
- Macleaya spp.
- Soapwort (Saponaria officinalis)
- Yellow loosestrife (Lysimachia punctata)
Ground cover plants
- Comfrey (Symphytum spp.)
- Creeping Jenny (Lysimachia nummularia)
- Euphorbia cyparissias
- Hypericum calycinum
- Leptinella squalida
- Periwinkle (Vinca major and V. minor)
- Pratia pedunculata
- Rubus biflorus
- Snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus)
- Yellow archangel (Lamium galeobdolon)
- Allium paradoxum and A. triquetrum
- Arum italicum
- Lesser celandine (Ficaria verna subsp verna (syn Ranunculus ficaria)) cultivars
- Nothoscordum borbonicum
- Oxalis culitvars
There are a number of aquatic plants that can easily get out of hand in a garden pond and are considered true weeds. Ideally these should never be introduced to the pond, though they sometimes come unwittingly with other pond plants.
Trees like the Leyland cypress and climbers such as Russian vine can grow so quickly that they are soon much too big for the garden.
Trees such as poplar and sumach have a tendency to sucker, sending up shoots all over the garden and even in neighbours’ properties.
Many ground cover shrubs like the snowberry or Hypericum calycinum spread via underground stems (rhizomes), sending up new plants and gradually taking over the border. Some bamboos also behave in this way, becoming a constant source of regret for the gardener.
Potentially invasive herbaceous plants and grasses, such as Japanese anemones and Phalaris arundinacea, form ever-enlarging clumps that require frequent division. Others, such as golden rod or weeping sedge also spread by seed, with seedlings popping-up in unexpected places where they are not wanted.
Bulbous plants such as Oxalis can produce tiny new bulbs, or offsets, which are scattered every time a clump is dug up, spreading the problem rather than controlling it.
First, consider whether this can be done using non-chemical means such as digging out or suppressing with mulch. Where these methods are not feasible, chemical controls may need to be used.
The RHS believes that avoiding pests, diseases and weeds by good practice in cultivation methods, cultivar selection, garden hygiene and encouraging or introducing natural enemies, should be the first line of control. If chemical controls are used, they should be used only in a minimal and highly targeted manner.
Hoe off or hand weed seedlings when small. Better still, try to remove dead flower heads regularly to prevent seed dispersal. Other garden plants that can become prolific self-seeders include Anemanthele lessoniana, camassia, chives, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Nectaroscordum siculum, sisyrinchium and Verbena bonariensis.
Digging out unwanted plants may work for a while, but is only likely to be a temporary solution. Suppression under black plastic or weed membranes is an alternative but again could take several growing seasons to be effective.
Beware putting invasive plants and their seedheads on the compost heap, as this is unlikely to reach a high enough temperature to kill off seeds, tough roots or underground stems (it is all right if they have already been killed off with a weedkiller). Instead, place them in the municipal green waste, as this is composted on an industrial scale, where tough weeds should be killed off. Burning may also be appropriate, but check your local Council guidelines.
For herbaceous weeds, try a programme of spraying using a systemic herbicide containing glyphosate – Roundup Fast Action and SBM Job done General Purpose Weedkiller are common brand names of such products. For woodier plants, choose triclopyr (SBK Brushwood Killer) or glyphosate formulated for stump killing (e.g. Rootblast Super Strength Total Weedkiller, Doff Tree Stump & Tough Weedkiller or Resolva Pro Xtra Tough).
Inclusion of a weedkiller product does not indicate a recommendation or endorsement by the RHS. It is a list of products currently available to the home gardener.
Weedkillers for gardeners (Adobe Acrobat pdf document outlining weedkillers available to gardeners; see sections 1a and 4)
The Royal Horticultural Society is the UK’s leading gardening charity. We aim to enrich everyone’s life through plants, and make the UK a greener and more beautiful place.